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카드뮴과 납의 다경로 노출량 추정 및 통합 위해성 평가

Estimation of Multi-Route Exposure and Aggregated Risk Assessment for Cadmium and Lead

한국식품위생안전성학회지 2020년 35권 6호 p.587 ~ 601
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Abstract


Exposure to hazardous substances occurs through multiple pathways. Aggregated risk assessment,which includes all potential exposure pathways to a single toxicant, is necessary to prevent exposure to harmful substances.
We aimed to estimate cadmium and lead exposure through various media, such as food, water, air, smoking,cosmetics, and female hygiene products. This study covered 10,733 subjects from the Seventh Korea National Healthand Nutrition Examination Survey(2016, 2017). Dietary exposure was estimated using 24-hour recall data. For waterand inhalational exposure, regional variations were considered. Water was classified as tap, bottled, and public water.
Inhalational exposure was estimated using the ‘2014 Time Use Survey’ based on daily lifestyle and social status. Thefrequency and volume of cosmetic usage were randomly approximated by sex and age. Post-menarcheal and premenopausalwomen were assumed to use feminine hygiene products. Non-carcinogenic aggregated risks were estimatedusing the Aggregate Risk Index from EPAs and the Total Exposure Hazard Index from Korean governmentguidelines. For carcinogenic risk assessment, excessive cancer risk was estimated. Ingestion, especially food, was themajor route for both cadmium and lead exposure. Smoking was also associated with high cadmium exposure. Exposureto lead from cosmetics was remarkable but not critical. In aggregate risk assessments, median cadmium and leadexposure did not exceed the reference value. Sex, age, smoking status, and income affected exposure levels, unlike toregional variations.

키워드

Cadmium; Lead; Exposure estimation; Aggregated risk assessment

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