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Second-to-Fourth Digit Ratio (2D:4D) in Psychiatric Disorders: A Systematic Review of Case-control Studies

Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience 2021년 19권 1호 p.26 ~ 45
Fusar-Poli Laura, Rodolico Alessandro, Sturiale Serena, Carotenuto Bianca, Natale Antimo, Arillotta Davide, Siafis Spyridon, Signorelli Maria Salvina, Aguglia Eugenio,
소속 상세정보
 ( Fusar-Poli Laura ) - University of Catania Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
 ( Rodolico Alessandro ) - University of Catania Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
 ( Sturiale Serena ) - University of Catania Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
 ( Carotenuto Bianca ) - University of Catania Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
 ( Natale Antimo ) - University of Catania Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
 ( Arillotta Davide ) - University of Catania Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
 ( Siafis Spyridon ) - Technical University of Munich School of Medicine Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
 ( Signorelli Maria Salvina ) - University of Catania Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
 ( Aguglia Eugenio ) - University of Catania Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine

Abstract


The second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) is an indirect, retrospective, non-invasive measure that correlates negatively with intrauterine exposure to testosterone. The present meta-analysis aimed to evaluate if 2D:4D differs between patients with psychiatric disorders and controls. In September 2019, we searched in Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO, Embase, and CINHAL, and retrieved 619 papers. We finally included 43 case-control studies which compared the 2D:4D ratio of patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n = 16), schizophrenia (n = 8), gender non-conformity (n = 7), addictions (n = 5), attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n = 4), mood disorders (n = 2), and intellectual disability (n = 1) to non-clinical controls. Meta-analyses showed that, overall, psychiatric patients had lower 2D:4D than healthy controls (n = 43, overall sample = 9,484, mean difference = ?0.0056, 95% confidence interval from ?0.0093 to ?0.002, I2 = 74%), with more pronounced differences in the right hand, males, and children. Considering psychiatric disorders individually, significant differences were found in the ASD, ADHD, and addictions groups, in which 2D:4D was significantly lower than healthy controls. Conversely, the right hand of males with schizophrenia showed higher 2D:4D than healthy controls. No other significant differences were detected. Although our results need to be cautiously interpreted and find limited applications in clinical practice, they may suggest that 2D:4D is altered in some psychopathological conditions, underlining the role of prenatal exposure to sex steroids in the etiology of psychiatric disorders.

키워드

Meta-analysis; Mental disorders; Testosterone; Autism spectrum disorder; Attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity; Substance addiction

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