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Comparison of Quantitative Electroencephalography between Tic Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children

Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience 2021년 19권 4호 p.739 ~ 750
이일주, 이지혈, 임명호, 김경민,
소속 상세정보
이일주 ( Lee Il-Ju ) - Dankook University College of Health Science Department of Psychology
이지혈 ( Lee Ji-Ryun ) - Dankook University Hospital Department of Psychiatry
임명호 ( Lim Myung-Ho ) - Dankook University College of Health Science Department of Psychology
김경민 ( Kim Kyoung-Min ) - Dankook University Hospital Department of Psychiatry

Abstract


Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tic disorder (TD) are among the most common comorbid psychopathologies and have a shared genetic basis. The psychopathological and neurophysiological aspects of the mechanism underlying the comorbidity of both disorders have been investigated, but the pathophysiological aspects remain unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the neurophysiological characteristics of ADHD with those of TD using resting-state electroencephalography and exact low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (eLORETA) analysis.

Methods: We performed eLORETA analysis based on the resting-state scalp-recorded electrical potential distribution in 34 children with ADHD and 21 age-matched children with TD. Between-group differences in electroencephalography (EEG) current source density in delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma bands were investigated in each cortical region.

Results: Compared with the TD group, the ADHD group showed significantly increased theta activity in the frontal region (superior frontal gyrus, t = 3.37, p < 0.05; medial frontal gyrus, t = 3.35, p < 0.05). In contrast, children with TD showed decreased posterior alpha activity than those with ADHD (precuneus, t = ?3.40, p < 0.05; posterior cingulate gyrus, t = ?3.38, p < 0.05). These findings were only significant when the eyes were closed.

Conclusion: Increased theta activity in the frontal region is a neurophysiological marker that can distinguish ADHD from TD. Also, reduced posterior alpha activity might represent aberrant inhibitory control. Further research needs to confirm these characteristics by simultaneously measuring EEG-functional magnetic resonance imaging.

키워드

ADHD; Tic disorder; Electroencephalography

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