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Ceramide/Sphingomyelin Rheostat Regulated by Sphingomyelin Synthases and Chronic Diseases in Murine Models

Journal of Lipid and Atherosclerosis 2020년 9권 3호 p.380 ~ 405
Taniguchi Makoto, Okazaki Toshiro,
소속 상세정보
 ( Taniguchi Makoto ) - Kanazawa Medical University Medical Research Institute
 ( Okazaki Toshiro ) - Kanazawa Prefectural University Research Institute for Bioresources and Biotechnology

Abstract


Ceramide and sphingomyelin (SM) are major components of the double membrane-bound sphingolipids. Ceramide is an essential bioactive lipid involved in numerous cell processes including apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy-dependent cell death. Inversely, SM regulates opposite cellular processes such as proliferation and migration by changing receptor-mediated signal transduction in the lipid microdomain. SM is generated through a transfer of phosphocholine from phosphatidylcholine to ceramide by SM synthases (SMSs). Research during the past several decades has revealed that the ceramide/SM balance in cellular membranes regulated by SMSs is important to decide the cell fate, survival, and proliferation. In addition, recent experimental studies utilizing SMS knockout mice and murine disease models provide evidence that SMS-regulated ceramide/SM balance is involved in human diseases. Here, we review the basic structural and functional characteristics of SMSs and focus on their cellular functions through the regulation of ceramide/SM balance in membrane microdomains. In addition, we present the pathological or physiological implications of SMSs by analyzing their role in SMS-knockout mice and human disease models. This review finally presents evidence indicating that the regulation of ceramide/SM balance through SMS could be a therapeutic target for human disorders.

키워드

Ceramides; Sphingomyelins; SMS; Ceramide/SM balance; Murine disease models

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