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COVID-19: “영양 아젠다”

Nutrition agenda during the era of the COVID-19 pandemic

Journal of Nutrition and Health 2021년 54권 1호 p.1 ~ 9
이명숙,
소속 상세정보
이명숙 ( Lee Myoung-Sook ) - Sungshin Women’s University Department of Food and Nutrition

Abstract


This review describes the risk factors of the nutrition crisis in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections and suggests precision nutrition against long-term psychological and physiological stress. The mandatory quarantine and the social distancing are associated with an interruption of the lifestyle routine, resulting in psychological (i.e., boredom) and physiological stress. The stress with multiple causes and forms induces over-compensation of energy-dense food, such as sugary comfort food, and is defined as “food craving” because carbohydrates positively affect the psychological stability with serotonin secretion. The consumption of foods that promote an immune response against viral infections (vitamins & minerals; Cu, folate, Fe, Se, Zn, and Vit A, B6, B12, C, and D), reduce inflammatory cytokines (w-3 fatty acids, Vit D, fibers, and Mg), contain antioxidants (beta-carotene, Vit E, C, Se, and phenolics), and sleep-inducing proteins (serotonin, melatonin, and milk products) is essential. In addition, a reduced Vit D deficiency in winter due to less time spent outdoors under quarantine has been reported to be associated with viral infections. The case fatality rate of COVID-19 was significantly dependent on age, sex, race, and underlying health condition. To prevent malnutrition and cachexia in elderly people, weight loss and muscle wasting should be monitored and controlled. Inadequate protein intake, sedentary lifestyle, and inflammation are significant risk factors for sarcopenia. Moreover, relatively high intakes of fat or carbohydrate compared to low protein intake result in abdominal obesity, which is defined as “sarcopenic obesity.” Keeping the food-safety guidelines of COVID-19, this study recommends the consumption of fresh and healthy foods and avoiding sugar, fat, salt, alcohol, and commercially frozen foods.

키워드

COVID-19; lifestyle routine; precision nutrition; immunity

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