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Effect of adherence to carbohydrate counting on metabolic control in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus

Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism 2020년 25권 3호 p.156 ~ 162
Bayram Sinem, Kiziltan Gul, Akin Onur,
소속 상세정보
 ( Bayram Sinem ) - Baskent University Faculty of Health Science Department of Nutrition and Dietetics
 ( Kiziltan Gul ) - Baskent University Faculty of Health Science Department of Nutrition and Dietetics
 ( Akin Onur ) - Baskent University Faculty of Health Science Gulhane Education and Research Hospital Department of Child Endocrinology

Abstract


Purpose: Carbohydrate counting provides better glycemic control and flexibility than other food planning methods. Consistent adherence to such a complex method is difficult, especially for youth. However, studies that determine adherence to this method and whether it alters metabolic control are limited. The aim of the current study was to determine adherence to this method and investigate its effect on metabolic control, anthropometric measurements, insulin dose, and energy intake.

Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, 53 children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus aged 2 to18 years and receiving intensive insulin therapy were trained and followed for 6 months. Demographics, anthropometrics, insulin requirements, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting lipids, and food records at baseline and study conclusion were evaluated. At the end of the study patients were divided into adherer and nonadherer groups according to carbohydrate estimate deviations from standardized daily sample menus and calculations for accurate insulin doses. More than 10-g variation in daily consumed carbohydrate amount or failure to decide bolus insulin dose was defined as a nonadherer.

Results: The mean HbA1c, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and body mass index standard deviation score changed after the carbohydrate counting training while the mean HbA1c between groups was significant (P<0.05). Total daily insulin doses increased, and the mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased in both groups. There were significant correlations between HbA1c and carbohydrate deviation scores as well as HbA1c and caregiver's education level.

Conclusions: Since adherence to carbohydrate counting may affect metabolic control, health professionals should evaluate and monitor carbohydrate counting skills of caregivers and patients in order to improve efficiency.

키워드

Type 1 diabetes mellitus; Carbohydrate counting; Adherence; Carbohydrate; Child; Adolescents

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