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Treatment of Functional Hypogonadism Besides Pharmacological Substitution

The World Journal of Men′s Health 2020년 38권 3호 p.256 ~ 270
Corona Giovanni, Rastrelli Giulia, Morelli Annamaria, Sarchielli Erica, Cipriani Sarah, Vignozzi Linda, Maggi Mario,
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 ( Corona Giovanni ) - Maggiore-Bellaria Hospital Azienda Usl Medical Department Endocrinology Unit
 ( Rastrelli Giulia ) - University of Florence Department of Experimental, Clinical and Biomedical Sciences
 ( Morelli Annamaria ) - University of Florence Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine
 ( Sarchielli Erica ) - University of Florence Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine
 ( Cipriani Sarah ) - University of Florence Department of Experimental, Clinical and Biomedical Sciences
 ( Vignozzi Linda ) - University of Florence Department of Experimental, Clinical and Biomedical Sciences
 ( Maggi Mario ) - University of Florence Department of Experimental, Clinical and Biomedical Sciences

Abstract


A dichotomic distinction between “organic” and “functional” hypogonadism is emerging. The former is an irreversible condition due to congenital or “acquired” “organic” damage of the brain centers or of the testis. Conversely, the latter is a potentially reversible form, characterized by borderline low testosterone (T) levels mainly secondary to age-related comorbidities and metabolic derangements, including metabolic syndrome (MetS). Life-style modifications, - here reviewed and, when possible, meta-analyzed -, have documented that weight-loss and physical exercise are able to improve obesity-associated functional hypogonadism and its related sexual symptoms. A rabbit experimental model, of MetS originally obtained in our lab, showed that endurance training (PhyEx) completely reverted MetS-induced hypogonadotropic hypogonadism by reducing hypothalamus inflammation and testis fibrosis eventually allowing for a better corpora cavernosa relaxation and response to sildenafil. Physicians should strongly adapt all the reasonable strategies to remove/mitigate the known conditions underlying functional hypogonadism, including MetS and obesity. Physical limitations, including reduced muscle mass and increased fat mass, along with low self-confidence, also due to the sexual problems, might limit a subject's propensity to increase physical activity and dieting. A short term T treatment trial, by improving muscle mass and sexual function, might help hypogonadal obese patients to overcome the overfed, inactive state and to become physically and psychologically ready for changing their lifestyle.

키워드

Male hypogonadism; Obesity; Physical exercise; Testosterone; Weight loss

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