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Does antiretroviral therapy cause congenital malformations? A systematic review and meta-analysis

Epidemiology and Health 2021년 43권 1호 p.8 ~ 8
Alemu Fekadu Mazengia, Yalew Alemayehu Worku,
소속 상세정보
 ( Alemu Fekadu Mazengia ) - Addis Ababa University College of Health Sciences School of Public Health
 ( Yalew Alemayehu Worku ) - Addis Ababa University College of Health Sciences School of Public Health

Abstract


OBJECTIVES: This meta-analysis investigated the risk of congenital anomalies among infants of human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnant women who were exposed to antiretroviral therapy (ART).

METHODS: Cohort studies, case-control studies, randomized controlled trials, and controlled clinical trials were reviewed by searching MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, AIDSLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and Google/Google Scholar. Methodological quality was assessed using the GRADE evaluation. A DerSimonian and Laird random-effects model was used. Subgroup analyses and meta-regression were used to investigate heterogeneity.

RESULTS: The electronic searches yielded 765 items. After quality assessment and grading, 30 studies were suitable for metaanalysis. In total, 1,461 congenital anomalies were found among 53,186 births. Children born to women receiving combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) had an approximately 10% higher risk of developing congenital anomalies (relative risk [RR], 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 1.14). A subgroup analysis found no significant difference in the risk of congenital anomalies between cART and efavirenz users. However, zidovudine and protease inhibitor (RR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.19) users were found to have a 10% increased risk of congenital anomalies, and integrase inhibitor users had a 60% increase in risk (RR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.60 to 2.43). The subgroup results should be interpreted cautiously because of the moderate heterogeneity (I2 =58%).

CONCLUSIONS: The use of protease inhibitors, integrase inhibitors, zidovudine, and newer drugs should be carefully considered in pregnant women. Further studies are needed to address environmental, nutrition, and adherence factors related to ART. Establishing a congenital anomalies surveillance system is recommended.

키워드

Antiretroviral therapy; Congenital anomalies; Protease inhibitors; Integrase inhibitors; Efavirenz

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