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The development of mesenchymal stem cell therapy in the present, and the perspective of cell-free therapy in the future

Clinical and Molecular Hepatology 2021년 27권 1호 p.70 ~ 80
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Abstract


Cirrhosis is a chronic condition that can lead to liver failure. Currently, the viable option for decreasing mortality is liver transplantation. However, transplant surgery is highly invasive. Therefore, cell-based therapy has been developed as an alternative. Based on promising findings from preclinical research, some new trials have been registered. One of them was autologous bone marrow cell infusion therapy and found that ameliorating liver fibrosis activated liver regeneration. Now, majority of trials focus on low-immunogenicity mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) appropriate for allogeneic administration. However, despite about 20 years of research, only a limited number of cell-based therapies have entered routine practice. Furthermore, potential shortcomings of cell-based therapy include a limit on the number of cells, which may be administered, as well as their failure to infiltrate target organs. On the other hand, these research show that MSCs act as “conducting cells” and regulate host cells including macrophages via extracellular vesicles (EVs) or exosome signals, leading to ameliorate liver fibrosis and promote regeneration. Therefore, the concept of cell-free therapy, which makes use of cell-derived EVs or exosomes, is attracting attention. Cell-free therapies may be safely administered in large doses and are able to infiltrate target organs. However, development of cell-free therapy exhibits its own set of challenges and such therapy may not be completely curative in the context of liver disease. This review describes the history of cell-based therapy research and recent advances in cell-free therapy, as well as discussing the need for more effective therapies.

키워드

Cirrhosis; Extracellular vesicles; Exosomes; Mesenchymal stem cells; Macrophages

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