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Ocular Involvement Occurs Frequently at All Stages of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Preliminary Experience in a Large Italian Cohort

Journal of Clinical Neurology 2021년 17권 1호 p.96 ~ 105
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Abstract


Background and Purpose: The study aimed to obtain optometric findings of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients in different stages of the disease, and to determine the relation between ocular data and ALS-related features; that is, functional and cognitive impairment and staging.

Methods: The optometric protocol included tests of the ocular motility [broad-H test and Northeastern State University College of Optometry (NSUCO) test], near point of convergence (NPC), error refraction, best-corrected visual acuity, and binocular visual alignment, and an ocular symptoms questionnaire. The functional measures included the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale?revised (ALSFRS-r) and Milano-Torino staging (MiToS), and cognitive impairment was assessed using the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS). Demographic and clinical features were also collected, including whether the patients used an eye-tracking communication device (ETCD).

Results: Two-hundred consecutive ALS patients (median age of 64 years, 118 males and 82 females) in different stages of disease were recruited. Nearly 70% of patients reported at least one ocular symptom, and the use of an ETCD was found to be significantly related to the presence of most symptoms. Moreover, the severely symptomatic group was characterized by significantly lower ALSFRS-r total and subscale scores, and higher MiToS. Abnormal NPC values were significantly related to lower ALSFRS-r total and bulbar-subscale scores. Patients with acceptable NSUCO test values exhibited significantly higher ECAS scores.

Conclusions: The presence of ocular alteration in patients in different stages of ALS supports the idea that this is a multisystem disorder and emphasizes the importance of optometric evaluations in multidisciplinary assessments to address ocular impairment early in the disease process.

키워드

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; visual system; optometric analysis; ocular motility; Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen; Milano-Torino staging

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