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An Overview of Cancer Prevention: Chemoprevention and Immunoprevention

Journal of Cancer Prevention 2020년 25권 3호 p.127 ~ 135
Gu Kyle J., Li Guojun,
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 ( Gu Kyle J. ) - University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Department of Head and Neck Surgery
 ( Li Guojun ) - University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Department of Head and Neck Surgery

Abstract


Cancer prevention encompasses a broad spectrum of strategies designed to lower the chance of developing cancer and reduce the morbidity of established cancer. There are three levels of cancer prevention. Eliminating or mitigating cancer risk factors by adopting healthy behaviors and lifestyles, such as avoiding tobacco and alcohol use, exercising, eating a healthy diet, and applying sunscreen to protect against UV exposure, belongs to primary prevention and is the easiest and most effective way of preventing cancer for the general public. Secondary prevention includes screening to identify precancerous lesions and taking intervention measures to prevent disease progression to malignancy. Tertiary prevention refers to reducing or controlling the symptoms and morbidity of established cancer or the morbidity caused by cancer therapy. For high-risk populations, chemopreventive agents, such as selective estrogen receptor modulators (including tamoxifan and raloxifene) in breast cancer prevention and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (aspirin) in colorectal cancer prevention, and immunoprevention using human papillomavirus and hepatitis B virus vaccines in infection-related cancers have shown clear clinical benefits of reducing cancer incidences. In this review, we will summarize the current status of cancer prevention, focusing on the major agents that are clinically used for chemoprevention and immunoprevention.

키워드

Chemoprevention; Immunoprevention; Selective estrogen receptor modulators; Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents; Vaccines

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