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15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 Induces Epithelial-tomesenchymal Transition in Human Breast Cancer Cells and Promotes Fibroblast Activation

Journal of Cancer Prevention 2020년 25권 3호 p.152 ~ 163
최지혜, 서진영, 김도희, 나혜경, 서영준,
소속 상세정보
최지혜 ( Choi Jee-Hye ) - Seoul National University College of Pharmacy
서진영 ( Suh Jin-Young ) - Seoul National University College of Pharmacy
김도희 ( Kim Do-Hee ) - Kyonggi University College of Convergence and Integrated Science Department of Chemistry
나혜경 ( Na Hye-Kyung ) - Sungshin Women’s University College of Knowledge-based Services Engineering Department of Food Science and Biotechnology
서영준 ( Surh Young-Joon ) - Seoul National University College of Pharmacy

Abstract


In inflammation-associated carcinogenesis, COX-2 is markedly overexpressed, resulting in accumulation of various prostaglandins. 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) is one of the terminal products of COX-2-catalyzed arachidonic acid catabolism with oncogenic potential. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process by which epithelial cells lose their polarity and adhesiveness, and thereby gain migratory and invasive properties. Treatment of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells with 15d-PGJ2 induced EMT as evidenced by increased expression of Snail and ZEB1, with concurrent down-regulation of E-cadherin. Nuclear extract from 15d-PGJ2-treated MCF-7 cells showed the binding of Snail and ZEB1 to E-box sequences present in the E-cadherin promoter, which accounts for repression of E-catherin expression. Unlike 15d-PGJ2, its non-electrophilic analogue 9,10-dihydro- 15d-PGJ2 failed to induce EMT, suggesting that the α,β-unsaturated carbonyl group located in the cyclopentenone ring of 15d-PGJ2 is essential for its oncogenic function. Notably, the mRNA level of interleukin-8 (IL-8)/CXCL8 was highly elevated in 15d-PGJ2-stimulated MCF-7 cells. 15d-PGJ2-induced up-regulation of IL-8/CXCL8 expression was abrogated by silencing of Snail short interfering RNA. Treatment of normal fibroblast with conditioned medium obtained from cultures of MCF-7 cells undergoing EMT induced the expression of activated fibroblast marker proteins, α-smooth muscle actin and fibroblasts activation protein-α. Co-culture of normal fibroblasts with 15d-PGJ2-stimulated MCF-7 cells also activated normal fibroblast cells to cancer associated fibroblasts. Taken together, above findings suggest that 15d-PGJ2 induces EMT through up-regulation of Snail expression and subsequent production of CXCL8 as a putative activator of fibroblasts, which may contribute to tumor-stroma interaction in inflammatory breast cancer microenvironment.

키워드

15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2; Breast cancer; Cancer-associated fibroblasts; Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition; Tumor microenvironment

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