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Peptidyl and Non-Peptidyl Oral Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists

Endocrinology and Metabolism 2021년 36권 1호 p.22 ~ 29
최훈지, 조영민,
소속 상세정보
최훈지 ( Choe Hun-Jee ) - Seoul National University College of Medicine Department of Internal Medicine
조영민 ( Cho Young-Min ) - Seoul National University College of Medicine Department of Internal Medicine

Abstract


Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are efficacious glucose-lowering medications with salient benefits for body weight and cardiovascular events. This class of medications is now recommended as the top priority for patients with established cardiovascular disease or indicators of high risk. Until the advent of oral semaglutide, however, GLP-1 receptor agonists were available only in the form of subcutaneous injections. Aversion to needles, discomfort with self-injection, or skin problems at the injection site are commonly voiced problems in people with diabetes, and thus, attempts for non-invasive delivery strategies have continued. Herein, we review the evolution of GLP-1 therapy from its discovery and the development of currently approved drugs to the unprecedented endeavor to administer GLP-1 receptor agonists via the oral route. We focus on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the recently approved oral GLP-1 receptor agonist, oral semaglutide. Small molecule oral GLP-1 receptor agonists are currently in development, and we introduce how these chemicals have addressed the challenge posed by interactions with the large extracellular ligand binding domain of the GLP-1 receptor. We specifically discuss the structure and pharmacological properties of TT-OAD2, LY3502970, and PF-06882961, and envision an era where more patients could benefit from oral GLP-1 receptor agonist therapy.

키워드

Glucagon-like peptide 1; Receptors; G-protein-coupled; Administration; oral; Drug development; Semaglutide

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