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The Potential Role of an Endotoxin Tolerance-Like Mechanism for the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Spirulina platensis Organic Extract in Macrophages

Journal of Medicinal Food 2017년 20권 3호 p.201 ~ 210
Pham Tho X., 박영기, 배민경, 이지영,
소속 상세정보
 ( Pham Tho X. ) - University of Connecticut Department of Nutritional Sciences
박영기 ( Park Young-Ki ) - University of Connecticut Department of Nutritional Sciences
배민경 ( Bae Min-Kyung ) - University of Connecticut Department of Nutritional Sciences
이지영 ( Lee Ji-Young ) - University of Connecticut Department of Nutritional Sciences

Abstract


Endotoxin tolerance is a phenomenon where exposure of innate immune cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces a refractory state to subsequent endotoxin exposures. The goal of this study was to investigate if Spirulina platensis organic extract (SPE) induces an endotoxin tolerance-like state. We used splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages from C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat/high-sucrose (HF/HS) control or a HF/HS diet containing 0.25% (w/w) SPE for 16 weeks for ex vivo LPS stimulation and endotoxin-tolerant (ET) macrophages to evaluate the effects of SPE on endotoxin tolerance. Cells from SPE-fed mice displayed significantly less expression of proinflammatory genes than those from control mice. ET macrophages were produced in vitro by incubating RAW 264.7 macrophages with low-dose LPS to determine the energy phenotype of naive, SPE-treated, and ET macrophages. Compared to naive macrophages exposed to a high-dose LPS (100?ng/mL) for the first time, ET macrophages showed significantly less proinflammatory gene expression after LPS stimulation, which was also observed with SPE treatment. Consistently, nuclear translocation of p65 was markedly reduced in both ET- and SPE-treated macrophages on LPS stimulation with increase in nuclear protein levels of p50 and B cell lymphoma 3-encoded protein. In conclusion, the anti-inflammatory effect of SPE is at least partly attributable to the induction of an endotoxin tolerance-like state in macrophages, which shares common characteristics of macrophage endotoxin tolerance.

키워드

endotoxin tolerance; inflammation; Spirulina platensis

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