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Harmful Effect of Indoor Formaldehyde on Atopic Dermatitis in Children: A Longitudinal Study

Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research : AAIR 2021년 13권 3호 p.468 ~ 478
김영민, 김지현, 하승철, 안강모,
소속 상세정보
김영민 ( Kim Young-Min ) - Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine Samsung Medical Center Department of Pediatrics
김지현 ( Kim Ji-Hyun ) - Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine Samsung Medical Center Department of Pediatrics
하승철 ( Ha Seoung-Chul ) - SENKO Co. Ltd.
안강모 ( Ahn Kang-Mo ) - Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine Samsung Medical Center Department of Pediatrics

Abstract


Purpose: Evidence supporting a link between indoor formaldehyde exposure and atopic dermatitis (AD) in humans is limited. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to investigate whether AD symptoms in children could be affected by indoor formaldehyde levels in ordinary households.

Methods: Fifty-five children with moderate-to-severe AD aged under 18 years were enrolled as a panel. They were followed up from February 2019 through February 2020. Indoor formaldehyde levels of patients' houses and their AD symptoms were repeatedly measured on a daily basis. The generalized linear mixed model was utilized for statistical analysis. Subdivision analysis was performed by stratifying patients by sex, body mass index, presence of parental allergy, and indoor environments including mold/dampness, temperature, and relative humidity (RH).

Results: A total of 4,789 person-days of AD symptom data were collected. The average concentration of formaldehyde was 13.6 ± 16.4 ppb, with the highest value found in spring (18.1 ± 20.6 ppb). Higher levels of formaldehyde were observed when there was parental smoking, increased indoor temperature over 25.5°C, or RH over 60% (P < 0.0001). When the effect size was compared between each season after controlling for ambient particulate matter, temperature, and RH, an increase in 10 ppb of formaldehyde increased AD symptoms by 79.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 19.6?168.4) in spring and by 39.9% (95% CI, 14.3?71.2) in summer. AD symptoms in children aged 6?18 years appeared to increase significantly, whereas there was no significant increase in children under 6 years. When indoor temperature was over 25.5°C, an increase in formaldehyde by 10 ppb increased AD symptoms by 17.8% (95% CI, 3.9?33.6).

Conclusions: Indoor formaldehyde can exacerbate AD symptom in children with moderate-to-severe AD, particularly in spring and summer, even at allowable levels. Thus, minimizing exposure to indoor formaldehyde may be needed for the proper management of AD in children.

키워드

Formaldehyde; atopic dermatitis; child; seasons; air pollution; fungi; smoke

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