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Biomaterials Regulate Mechanosensors YAP/TAZ in Stem Cell Growth and Differentiation

Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine 2021년 18권 2호 p.199 ~ 215
Virdi Jasmeet Kaur, Pethe Prasad,
소속 상세정보
 ( Virdi Jasmeet Kaur ) - SVKM’s NMIMS Sunandan Divatia School of Science Department of Biological Science
 ( Pethe Prasad ) - Symbiosis International University Symbiosis Centre for Stem Cell Research

Abstract


Tissue-resident stem cells are surrounded by a microenvironment known as ‘stem cell niche’ which is specific for each stem cell type. This niche comprises of cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic factors like biochemical and biophysical signals, which regulate stem cell characteristics and differentiation. Biochemical signals have been thoroughly studied however, the effect of biophysical signals on stem cell regulation is yet to be completely understood. Biomaterials have aided in addressing this issue since they can provide a defined and tuneable microenvironment resembling in vivo conditions. We review various biomaterials used in many studies which have shown a connection between biomaterial-generated mechanical signals and alteration in stem cell behaviour. Researchers probed to understand the mechanism of mechanotransduction and reported that the signals from the extracellular matrix regulate a transcription factor yes-associated protein (YAP)/transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), which is a downstream-regulator of the Hippo pathway and it transduces the mechanical signals inside the nucleus. We highlight the role of the YAP/TAZ as mechanotransducers in stem cell self-renewal and differentiation in response to substrate stiffness, also the possibility of mechanobiology as the emerging field of regenerative medicines and three-dimensional tissue printing.

키워드

Mechanobiology; Human pluripotent stem cells; YAP/TAZ; Biomaterials

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