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Kegel Exercises, Biofeedback, Electrostimulation, and Peripheral Neuromodulation Improve Clinical Symptoms of Fecal Incontinence and Affect Specific Physiological Targets: An Randomized Controlled Trial

Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motilitya 2021년 27권 1호 p.108 ~ 118
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Abstract


Background/Aims: Fecal incontinence (FI) is a prevalent condition among community-dwelling women, and has a major impact on quality of life (QoL). Research on treatments commonly used in clinical practice?Kegel exercises, biofeedback, electrostimulation, and transcutaneous neuromodulation?give discordant results and some lack methodological rigor, making scientific evidence weak. The aim is to assess the clinical efficacy of these 4 treatments on community-dwelling women with FI and their impact on severity, QoL and anorectal physiology.

Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted on 150 females with FI assessed with anorectal manometry and endoanal ultrasonography, and pudendal nerve terminal motor latency, anal/rectal sensory-evoked-potentials, clinical severity, and QoL were determined. Patients were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: Kegel (control), biofeedback + Kegel, electrostimulation + Kegel, and neuromodulation + Kegel, treated for 3 months and re-evaluated, then followed up after 6 months.

Results: Mean age was 61.09 ± 12.17. Severity of FI and QoL was significantly improved in a similar way after all treatments. The effect on physiology was treatment-specific: Kegel and electrostimulation + Kegel, increased resting pressure (P < 0.05). Squeeze pressures strongly augmented with biofeedback + Kegel, electrostimulation + Kegel and neuromodulation + Kegel (P < 0.01). Endurance of squeeze increased in biofeedback + Kegel and electrostimulation + Kegel (P < 0.01). Rectal perception threshold was reduced in the biofeedback + Kegel, electrostimulation + Kegel, and neuromodulation + Kegel (P < 0.05); anal sensory-evoked-potentials latency shortened in patients with electrostimulation + Kegel (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: The treatments for FI assessed have a strong and similar efficacy on severity and QoL but affect specific pathophysiological mechanisms. This therapeutic specificity can help to develop more efficient multimodal algorithm treatments for FI based on pathophysiological phenotypes.

키워드

Biofeedback; Electric stimulation; Fecal incontinence; Pelvic floor disorders; Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation

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